The use of wild-caught juveniles in coastal aquaculture and its application to coral reef fishes
- Worldwide, there are many substantial coastal aquaculture and stock enhancement operations based on collection of wild juveniles. These include: growout of shrimp (Penaeidae), milkfish (Chanos chanos), eels (Anguilla spp.), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), edible oysters (Ostreidae) and mussels (Mytilidae); stock enhancement of scallops (Pectinidae); and the culture of pearls in farmed blacklip pearl oysters (Pinctada margaritifera). The growout of wild puerulus larvae of spiny lobsters (Palinuridae) is also developing rapidly. The advantages of using wild-caught juveniles for aquaculture are: (i) low costs of obtaining animals for stocking as compared with hatchery production; (ii) availability of individuals fit for growout in the sea; (iii) no risks of 'genetic pollution' from deliberate or accidental releases; (iv) reduced likelihood of transferring diseases; and (v) a broader range of economic benefits, including opportunities for coastal dwellers in developing countries to sell stock to larger enterprises. In addition, responsible capture and culture of wild juveniles can improve overall fisheries productivity for target species by circumventing the high rates of natural mortality associated with settlement of postlarvae from the plankton. Careful management of this process is needed, however, to ensure that replenishment of the stock, and fisheries targeting adults, are not affected.
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- Sustainable aquaculture 
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