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dc.creatorKabir, K.en_US
dc.creatorVerdegem, M.en_US
dc.creatorVerreth, J.en_US
dc.creatorPhillips, M.J.en_US
dc.creatorSchrama, J.W.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-20T04:40:57Z
dc.date.available2019-06-20T04:40:57Z
dc.identifier.citationKazi Ahmed Kabir, Marc Verdegem, Johan Verreth, Michael Phillips, Johan Schrama. (7/6/2019). Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio, stocking density and feeding level on performance of Nile tilapia in pond aquaculture. Aquaculture, 511.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0044-8486en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12348/3625
dc.description.abstractThere is growing interest to understand the dietary P:E requirements for the supplemental feed used in tilapia pond culture where natural food contributes to production. In an on-farm trial, we tested the effect of lowering dietary P:E ratio on fish performance, pond nutrient utilization and economic benefit under two stocking densities and feeding levels. Forty ponds, (average size 234 ± 112 m2), were assigned to test the effect of two diets, which differed in P:E ratio (18 vs 14 g.MJ−1), two feeding levels (14 vs 18 g.kg-0.8.d−1) and two stocking densities (2 vs 3 fish.m−2). Initial fish biomass was 45(±21) vs 67(±38) g.m−2 at 2 vs 3 fish.m−2, respectively. The experiment lasted 82 days. Decreasing P:E ratio enhanced tilapia production (P < 0.05; 459 vs 399 g.m−2). Increasing stocking density of tilapia from 2 to 3 m−2 increased biomass gain 43% (P < 0.001; 354 vs 505 g.m−2). Averaged over both diets and stocking densities, growth and feed conversion ratio increased with increasing feeding level (P < 0.001). Fish survival was unaffected by diet, stocking density and feeding level. Dissolved oxygen increased with increased stocking density with low P:E diet. The opposite happened for high P:E diet (P < 0.05). Increasing the feeding level also increased the DO concentration (P < 0.001). N retention efficiency was higher with the low P:E ratio diet (P < 0.001; 71 vs 52%) and decreased with increasing feeding level (P < 0.001). The data on N gain and N balance at the pond level suggest that the food web productivity was stimulated by reducing the dietary P:E ratio. The low P:E diet increased the gross margin by 95% (P < 0.001; 2076 vs 1067 USD.ha−1) and benefit cost ratio by 22% (P < 0.05; 1.57 vs 1.29). The P:E ratio of the low P:E diet is less than the presently advised. Lowering the P:E ratio from 18 to 14 g.MJ−1 in pond feeds for tilapia will increase the economic viability of pond aquaculture.en_US
dc.formatPDFen_US
dc.languageenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier (12 months)en_US
dc.rightsCC-BY-NC-4.0en_US
dc.sourceAquaculture;511,(2019)en_US
dc.subjectgross marginen_US
dc.subjectprotein to energyen_US
dc.subjectpond aquacultureen_US
dc.subjectbenefit cost ratio (bcr)en_US
dc.titleEffect of dietary protein to energy ratio, stocking density and feeding level on performance of Nile tilapia in pond aquacultureen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.contributor.crpFISHen_US
cg.contributor.funderWorldFishen_US
cg.contributor.projectDeveloping low cost feed and transferring the technology to relevant actors for sustainable intensification of Tilapia culture (Blue Gold)en_US
cg.coverage.countryBangladeshen_US
cg.coverage.regionSouthern Asiaen_US
cg.subject.agrovocnitrogen retentionen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationWorldFishen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationWageningen University & Research Centreen_US
cg.identifier.statusLimited accessen_US
cg.identifier.ISIindexedISI indexeden_US
cg.contribution.worldfishauthorKabir, K.en_US
cg.contribution.worldfishauthorPhillips, M.J.en_US
cg.description.themeSustainable aquacultureen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.06.014en_US
cg.creator.idMarc Verdegem: 0000-0002-2058-3894en_US
cg.creator.idJohan Verreth: 0000-0001-7277-5129en_US
cg.creator.idMichael John Phillips: 0000-0002-0282-0286en_US


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