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dc.creatorGephart, J.en_US
dc.creatorHenriksson, P.J.en_US
dc.creatorParker, R.en_US
dc.creatorShepon, A.en_US
dc.creatorGorospe, K.D.en_US
dc.creatorBergman, K.en_US
dc.creatorEshel, G.en_US
dc.creatorGolden, C.D.en_US
dc.creatorHalpern, B.S.en_US
dc.creatorHornborg, S.en_US
dc.creatorJonell, M.en_US
dc.creatorMetian, M.en_US
dc.creatorMifflin, K.en_US
dc.creatorNewton, R.en_US
dc.creatorTyedmers, P.en_US
dc.creatorZhang, W.en_US
dc.creatorZiegler, F.en_US
dc.creatorTroell, M.en_US
dc.identifier.citationGephart, J. A. Henriksson, P. J. G. Parker, R. W. R. et al. Environmental performance of blue foods. Nature 597, 360–365 (2021).
dc.description.abstractFish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies relative to the vast diversity of production. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.en_US
dc.publisherNATURE RESEARCHen_US
dc.rightsCopyrighted; Non-commercial educational use onlyen_US
dc.sourceNature;597,(2021) Pagination 360,365en_US
dc.subjectresponsible consumption and productionen_US
dc.subjectclimate actionen_US
dc.subjectlife below wateren_US
dc.subjectenvironmental health and biodiversityen_US
dc.titleEnvironmental performance of blue foodsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.subject.agrovocenvironmental impacten_US
cg.contributor.affiliationBlue Food Assessmenten_US
cg.contributor.affiliationAmerican Universityen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationStockholm Resilience Centreen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationBeijer Institute of Ecological Economicsen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationDalhousie Universityen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationAquaculture Stewardship Councilen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public Healthen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationTel Aviv University, Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciencesen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationTel Aviv University, The Steinhardt Museum of Natural Historyen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationRISE Research Institutes of Swedenen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationBard Collegeen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationUniversity of California-Santa Barbara, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesisen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationUniversity of California, Bren School of Environmental Science and Managementen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationThe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphereen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationInternational Atomic Energy Agencyen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Stirlingen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationShanghai Ocean University, College of Fisheries and Life Scienceen_US
cg.identifier.statusOpen accessen_US
cg.identifier.ISIindexedISI indexeden_US
cg.description.themeSustainable aquacultureen_US
cg.creator.idPatrik John Gustav Henriksson: 0000-0002-3439-623Xen_US

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